India’s White Revolution: The Operation Flood

“Operation Flood has three major achievements to its credit: making dairying India’s largest self-sustainable rural employment program; bringing India self-sufficiency in milk production; trebling the nation’s milk production within a span of two and half decades to make India the world’s largest milk producer.” —  Verghese Kurien


The program expanded the production of milk which came to be known as the White Revolution in India. The White Revolution in India happened in 1970 when the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was set up to arrange dairy advancement through cooperative societies. Dr Verghese Kuerin was the Father of the White Revolution in India. The dairy advancement program through cooperative societies was first settled in the territory of Gujarat. The cooperative societies were best in the Anand District of Gujarat. The cooperative societies are claimed and overseen by the milk farmers. Operation Flood, dispatched in 1970 under the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), the world’s most significant dairy improvement program, made India the world’s biggest milk maker. India outperformed the USA in 1998, with around 17% of worldwide yield in 2010–11, which is 30 years multiplied milk accessible per individual, making dairy farming India’s biggest self-feasible business generator.

Background of Operation White Flood

Understanding contemporary dairy strategy requires understanding the historical backdrop of dairying in India and the interconnections between cooperatives, government, and advancement targets. It is vast that India’s dairy area has its underlying foundations in rancher coordinated obstruction. In 1946, milk farmers in Gujarat started a protest in response to abuse by mil monopoly by Polson dairy. A strike by milk farmers prompted the foundation of a milk assortment cooperative. The community decentralized milk assortment unit, and new cooperatives were established at the town level. This cycle led to an upheaval in dairying across India, which came to be known as the ‘White Revolution’. Rapidly, dairy associations were set up in Mehsana, Banaskantha, Baroda, Sabarkantha, and Surat. In 1964, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri mentioned that cooperative dairying is advanced across India. This led to the foundation of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and the rebuilding of India’s dairy sector via Operation Flood.

National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)

The accomplishments of Anand Pattern dairy cooperatives in Gujarat got noticed by the Government of India. In October 1964, on the initiation of Amul’s dairy cattle feed plant, the then Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, stayed at night as the visitor of a town milk cooperative community close to Anand. Dazzled by the socio-economic changes achieved by the milk cooperatives, he wished to have a government body to imitate Anand Pattern dairy cooperatives throughout the country. Subsequently, in 1965, NDDB was enlisted under the Societies Registration Act, the Charitable Trust Act and the Public Trust Act. The government set up the NDDB base camp at Anand. The order of NDDB is to recreate Anand Pattern Dairy Cooperatives in different pieces of the country through its famous Operation Flood (OF) program.

Objectives of the White Revolution

Town milk producer’s cooperatives established the framework of the Operation flood. With the ideal utilization of present-day innovation and the board, they obtained milk and offered assistance. White Revolution had the targets as expressed underneath:

  • The fundamental goals of the cooperative community are the acquisition, transportation, stockpiling of milk at the chilling plants.
  • To give dairy cattle feed.
  • The production of wide assortments of milk items and their promotion in the market.
  • The societies likewise give predominant types of (cows and wild oxen), health administrations, veterinary, and planned impregnation offices.
  • To give augmentation administration.
  • After being gathered at a town assortment centre unit, milk is expeditiously shipped to the dairy plant at the chilling
  • milk unit.
  • The town community and collection units
  •  keep up with the timing of assortment.
  • Producer’s cooperative associations oversee the chilling units to work with the assortment of milk from farmers who inhabit some separation from the chilling places. In this way, the brokers are disposed of.

Phases of Operation Flood

The OF (Operation Flood) program was executed in three stages between 1970 and 1996, which are as follows:

  • Stage I- Executed during 1970-79 was financed by the deal inside India of skimmed milk powder and spread oil gifted by the EC nations using the World Food Program. As Founder Chairman of the NDDB, Dr Kurien settled the plans and arranged the subtleties provided by EEC help. During its first stage, the central purpose was to set up dairy cooperatives in India’s 18 best milk sheds, connecting them with the four principal urban areas of Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras. It included sorting out dairy cooperatives at the town level, making the institutional foundation for milk acquisition, handling, showcasing and production improvement administrations at the central station, and setting up dairies in India’s significant metropolitan communities. Accordingly, the prior period OF program not just established the framework for India’s cutting-edge dairy industry yet additionally settled the chance of effectively duplicating a strong plan idea.
  • Stage II- Carried out during 1979-85, covered somewhere in the range of 136 milk sheds connected to more than 290 metropolitan business sectors. The seed capital raised from the offer of WFP/EEC gift items and World Bank advances had made, before the finish of 1985, a self-supporting arrangement of 43,000 town cooperatives covering 4.25 million milk farmers. Production of milk powder went up from 22,000 tons in the pre-project year to 1,40,000 tons in 1989, principally because of dairies set up under OF program. The EEC gifts accordingly assisted with advancing confidence.
  • Stage III- Carried out during 1985-96, guaranteed that the cooperative foundations become self-supporting. With a venture of US$360 million from the World Bank, ware and money help from the EEC and NDDB’s inside assets, the program accomplished considerable development of the dairy handling.  Offices were made by the cooperatives to give better veterinary emergency treatment and medical care administrations; breed improvement advances like planned impregnation, dairy cattle feed, sterile milk production procedures and current creature cultivation the board strategies to their maker individuals.

Achievements of the White Revolution

White Revolution is as essential to dairy advancement as the Green Revolution has been to grain production. Its result depends on the improvement in cow rearing and innovation. A portion of the significant accomplishments of the White Revolution are as follows:

  • The White Revolution significantly affected rural masses and urged them to take up dairying as an auxiliary occupation.
  • India has turned into the leading maker of milk on the planet. The milk production of around 17 million tons in 1950-51 rose to more than 105 million tons in 2007-08. Milk production has increased multiple times when compared with the Pre-Independence data.
  • After the White Revolution, per capita accessibility of milk each day is around 200 gm as against 100 grams.
  • Milk import has been decreased significantly.
  • The minimal farmers and the landless workers have particularly profited from the White Revolution.
  • To guarantee the accomplishment of the Operation Flood Program, research units have been set up at Anand, Mehsana, and Palanpur (Banaskantha). Besides, three territorial places are working at Siliguri, Jalandhar, and Erode. As of now, there are metro dairies in 10 metropolitan urban communities of the country, other than 40 plants with the ability to deal with more than one lakh litres of milk.
  • The government carried out the domesticated animal is protection on a pilot premise in 2005-06.
  • For guaranteeing the upkeep of sickness free status, effective health plans have been started.

The Anand Pattern

The Anand Pattern is an incorporated collaborative design that obtains, processes and markets the produce. Upheld by proficient administration, farmers choose their business approaches, take on current production and advertising strategies and get administrations that they can independently neither bear nor oversee. The Anand Pattern succeeds because it affects individuals through cooperatives where experts are responsible to pioneers chosen by farmers. The institutional foundation – town cooperative, dairy and cows feed plants, state and public advertising – is claimed and constrained by farmers. Anand Pattern cooperatives have logically connected farmers straightforwardly with shoppers. There was a three-level framework as follows:

  • Village Community-An Anand Pattern town dairy cooperative community (DCS) is shaped by milk farmers. Any maker can turn into a DCS part by purchasing an offer and resolving to sell milk just to the community. Every DCS has a milk assortment unit where individuals take milk each day. Every part’s milk is tried for quality with instalments dependent on the level of fat and SNF. At the end of the year, a segment of the DCS benefits is utilized to pay every member a bonus on the amount of milk poured.
  • Cooperative dairy societies possess the District Union-A District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union. The Union purchases every one of the societies’ milk, then, at that point, cycles and markets liquid milk and items. Most Unions likewise give a scope of data sources and administrations to DCSs and their individuals: feed, veterinary consideration, manual semen injection to support the development of milk production and the cooperatives’ business. Association staff prepare and give counselling administrations to help DCS pioneers and teams.
  • The State Federation- The cooperative milk farmers’ associations in a state structure, a State Federation, is liable for advertising liquid milk. A few alliances additionally produce feed and back other association exercises.

National Dairy Plan Phase I (NDP I) In Brief

Public Dairy Plan Phase I (NDP I) is a Central Sector Scheme for 2011-12 to 2018-19. NDP I carried out with a complete venture of about ₹ 2242 crore including ₹ 1584 crore as International Development Association (IDA) acknowledge, ₹ 176 crores as Government of India share, ₹ 282 crores as a portion of End Implementing Agencies (EIAs) that will do the undertakings in taking part states and ₹ 200 crores by National Dairy Development Board and its auxiliaries for giving specialized and execution backing to the task. The leading body of Executive Directors of the International Development Association has supported a US$ 352 million credit on 15 March 2012, and the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Government of India gave a managerial endorsement of focal area plot NDP I vide office reminder F. No. 22-23/2011-DP dated 16 March 2012. Financing will be through a credit extension from the International Development Association (IDA), which alongside the portion of the Government of India, will move from FATHER to NDDB and, like this, to qualified EIAs. NDP I is a logically arranged multi-state drive with the accompanying Project Development Objectives:

  • To assist with expanding the usefulness of milch animals and increment milk production to satisfy the quickly developing need for milk.
  • To assist country milk farmers with more noteworthy admittance to the communal milk-handling area.

Venture Area- NDP I developed on 18 significant milk-delivering states to be specific Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala,  Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan,  West Bengal, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh which together record for more than 90% of the nation’s milk production. Inclusion of NDP I will anyway be the nation over as far as advantages accumulating from the plan.

Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)

An enormous number of dairy handling plants with India’s Dairy Cooperatives were appointed during Operation Flood, which finished in 1996. Most of these plants have never been extended and additionally modernized from that point. These plants are working with old and outdated technology, which may not be energy productive as in contrast with present-day innovations. Substitution and modernization of these dairy plants are fundamental to further develop efficiencies, just as incrementing the production of items with higher worth expansion.

Thinking about the interests of the two farmers and buyers, Dairy Cooperatives pass on the most significant portion of deals acknowledgement (by and large around 75-80%) to milk farmers and make accessible safe milk to the purchasers at a reasonable cost. To guarantee that Dairy Cooperatives stay competitive for the supported advantage of farmers, the Government of India had declared the formation of the Dairy Processing and Infrastructure Development Fund under NABARD in December 2017 with an all-out plot expense of Rs. 10,881 crores. Under the plan, a corpus asset of Rs. Eight thousand four crores have been set up to make dairy handling framework during the period from 2017-18 to 2019-20.

The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) in February 2020 supported the amendment in the financing time frame from “2017-18 to 2019-20” to “2018-19 to 2022-23”. The CCEA endorsed an increase of interest grant from “up to 2% p.a.” to “up to 2.5% p.a.” which increased interest aid by DAHD from Rs. 864 crores to Rs. 1167 crore. Assignment of Rs. 1167 crore for meeting interest aid will be delivered to NABARD over 13 years, covering the whole credit reimbursement period from 2018-19 to 2030-31. NABARD will give credits to National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) at a financed pace of 6% per annum.