Fundamental Rights- The Golden Treasure of Indian Constitution (Part 5)

Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29- 30)

“We must not for a moment forget, it is a birthright of every individual to receive at least the basic education without which he cannot fully discharge his duties as a citizen.” – Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

Article 29- Protection of interests of minorities

The Right of individuals to conserve its language, script, or culture [Art.29(1)]– “Any section of the citizens residing in the State of India or any part thereof having a definite language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.” The Right of an individual not to be denied admission into the state-aided institution on the ground only of religion, race, caste, or language.

Article 29(2) states that “No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of funds of the State on the ground of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.”

To preserve language, script, and culture

Article 29(1) reaches out to every one of the citizens independent of the reality whether they are in more significant part or minority, the primary condition being that such section should have a particular language, content, or culture of its own. It is outright appropriate for the minorities to protect their language and culture through educational establishments and can’t be dependent upon practical limitations in light of a legitimate concern for the overall population.

Restrictions based on religion, race, caste, or language

Article 29(2) of the Constitution is a special right given to the citizen and not to any group. The current provision gives an abused individual who has been prevented from getting admission based on his religion on the ground. If an individual has the educational Qualifications yet is rejected confirmation just on the grounds of religion, race, position, language, or any of same, then, at that point, there is an unmistakable break of the significant Right under this section.

Article 30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

The Right of the relative multitude of strict or semantic minorities to build up and direct educational organizations willingly [Art.30(1)]- “All minorities, regardless of whether dependent on religion or language, will reserve the option to set up and oversee educational institutions of their decision.” The Right of an educational establishment not to be victimized regarding State help on the ground that it is under the administration of a minority [Art.30(2)]-“The state will not, in allowing help to educational organizations, oppress any educational establishment on the ground that it is under the administration of a minority, whether dependent on religion or language.”

Right to establish

To guarantee the advantage under Article 30(1), it isn’t required

  • The institution should try to preserve the language, context, or culture of the minority local area; what is fundamental is its institution by the minority local area. It might grant strict or standard instruction entirely detached from language, content, and culture.
  • That induction into such institution should be restricted only to individuals from the minority local area, and not a solitary individual from the more significant part local area or other minority networks ought to have its benefit as expressed in the case of S. Azeez Basha and Anr vs. Union of India (1968 AIR 662).

In the 1958 case of Dr Naresh Agarwal v. Association of India (AIR 1958 SC 956), half of the seats were to be filled based on the selection test directed by Aligarh Muslim University, and the other half of the chairs was saved for Muslim Candidates. The candidates for this situation, Hindu by standing, have been denied their entitlement to participate during the time spent confirmation against that half. The Allahabad High Court considered the judgment of Azeez Basha v. Union of India [2005 (4) AWC 3745]. It held that AMU isn’t a minority institution and struck down the correction made in favour of Aligarh Muslim University.

Right to administer

“Administer” under article 30(1) implies the option to oversee and lead the issues of the organization. In the 1954 case of the State of Bombay vs. Bombay Education Society and Others (1954 AIR 561), Court expressed that it is available to a college to force sensible conditions upon a minority institution for keeping up with the essential educational norm and proficiency like-

  • Qualifications of educators to be designated in the organization;
  • Condition of service, e.g., the period of superannuation of instructors;
  • Qualifications for passage of students;
  • Courses of study (dependent upon extraordinary subjects which the institution might look to instruct)
  • Cleanliness and the actual preparation of students.

In the 1992 case of State of Bombay v. Bombay Education Society [(1992) 1 SCC 558], it was held that “a minority like the Anglo Indian people group, which is based, between Alia, on religion and language, has the principal Right to moderate its language, content, and culture under Article 29(1) and has the privilege to build up and manage an educational institution of their decision under Article 30(1) unquestionably then there should be understood in the major Right, the option to grant guidance in their establishments to children of their local area in their language such being the fundamental Right the police force of the State to decide the medium of guidance should respect the crucial Right to the degree it is essential to give impact to it and can’t be allowed to oppose it”.

Admission in Minority Institutions

In the remarkable case of T.M.A Pai Foundation v. State of Karnataka [Writ Petition (Civil) 317 of 1993], it was held that “A minority organization might have its strategy and technique for affirmation just as determination of students, yet such a method should be reasonable and straightforward, and the choice of students in proficient and advanced education universities ought to be based on merit. The technique taken on or determination made ought not equivalent to maladministration. Indeed, even an independent minority institution should not disregard the value of the students to the schools previously mentioned, as in that occasion, the establishment will neglect to accomplish greatness”.


Our Constitution focuses on “Unity in Diversity.” The minority status isn’t just subject to the premise of religion yet additionally semantic minorities. These arrangements are embedded in the Constitution so minorities can likewise safeguard and foster their way of life. In the case of the Ahmedabad St. Xavier College v. State of Gujarat (1974 AIR 1389), it was held that “the soul behind the arrangement of the accompanying article is the conscience of the country that the minorities, strict just as semantic, are not denied from setting up and controlling educational organizations, of their decision to give their children the best broad schooling to make them a complete citizen of the country.”