Fundamental Rights- The Golden Treasure of Indian Constitution (Part 3)

Right against Exploitation (Articles 23- 24)

“The Indian struggle is not anti-British; it is anti-exploitation, anti-foreign rule, not anti-foreigners.” — Mahatma Gandhi

Article 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor

India is the most excellent democratic government on the earth was additionally once a position of servitude and exploitation for children and grown-ups. Before the institution of the Constitution of India, there were a few instances of slavery, exploitation, forced labour in India. With the progression of time and the reception of the Constitution (Article 23 in the Constitution of India 1949), these practices were decreased to nothing. Yet, even later these guidelines and guidelines, there were numerous crude practices towards humankind, like in Rajasthan, Northeastern states, a few pieces of UP, Bihar, and different regions where methods like distance, illegal exploitation are forced labours, and so on happens. Society stays shut, observing every one of these.

There are many spots where women are victimized in light of their gender and different issues. They were not permitted to enter certain areas during their weeks, yet no settled explanation was given for this practice. There are many instances of illegal exploitation in northeastern states where still govt. Can’t set up the reason and can’t make substantial strides in shutting down those exercises. Regardless, the Constitution of India guarantees opportunity and honorability to every individual, along these lines, leaving no augmentation for misuse, slavery, and misuse. Beginning around 1982, in any case, these articles have acknowledged uncommon significance. They have become solid instruments in the ownership of the courts to labour on the pathetic condition of the poor in the country.


  • Dis- advantaged people refrain from other equivalent kinds of compelled labor. According to law, any refutation from getting this will be punishable.
  • Nothing in this article will hold the State back from compelling required assistance for public purposes. In overpowering such help, the State won’t make any detachment on the grounds of religion, race, rank or class, or any of them.


  • It secures both citizens and non-citizens against State and private people regarding abuse.
  • Article 35 approves Parliament to make laws for rebuffing the demonstrations, which are denied under Article 23.
  • It makes the State answerable for distinguishing and eliminating any such sort of awful practices.


Beggar: The term beggar is of Indian beginning. The poor person was a system where the public authority (to be sure, the British Government authorities) and Zamindars used to compel individuals to pass on their items when they moved to start with one spot then onto the next spot. It infers mandatory labour without a payment. Beggar sets up two parts.

  • It is to push a person to kill his will, and
  • He isn’t paid any remuneration for that labor.

Traffic in individuals: This term suggests selling and purchasing individuals starting with one individual then onto the next, now and again from one country to another, as though they are their assets. Even though bondage isn’t explicitly referenced under Article 23 however is incorporated inside the importance of traffic in people. Incompatibility of Article 23, Parliament has passed the Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act, 1956, for rebuffing illegal exploitation.

Bonded Labour/Forced Labour: The labour doesn’t labour as a result of just physical and mental power, but also on account of his financial conditions like taking care of his obligations. Along these lines, he is compelled to labour, and on the off chance that he can’t take care of his obligations, the work sometimes gets duplicated with no instalment, or it passes to the future. Thus, from here, the term Bonded labour or forced labour came.

Landmark Judgements

  • Peoples Union for Democratic Rights v. Union of India (1982 AIR 1473)

This case discussed forced labour. The law restricts any forced labour, whether it be expected to mental, physical, or conservative tension. Additionally, no individual will be compelled to neutralize his will under anybody bearing extreme discipline.

  • Sanjit Roy v. the State of Rajasthan (1983 AIR 328)

The State used people for specific labour under the Famine Relief Act. People were seriously hit by starvation; the State used them like this. Regardless, these people were paid even underneath the base wages because the money was given to help the starvation situation in social affairs. Bhagwati J. held that: The instalment of wages lower than the lowest pay permitted by law to an individual utilized in Famine Relief Labour is violative under Article 23. The State isn’t allowed to exploit the defenselessness of such individuals with the reason of assisting them with meeting the circumstance of starvation or dry season.

  • Deena v. Union of India (1983 AIR 1155)

It discussed labourers taken from jails and said taking any labour with no repayment will add to the forced position. The State is qualified to pay compensation for the work done by those detainees regarding the State.

  • Bandhua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India (1984 AIR 802)

In, the Supreme Court saw that the disappointment of the State to recognize the Bonded labourers, set them free from their slavery, and restore them as visualized by the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, 1976 abused Articles 21 and 23. the Court held that reinforced labour” a rough type of forced labour was disallowed by Article 23.

  • M.P. State in Devendra v Nath Gupta (AIR 1983 MP 172)

The Madhya Pradesh High Court concluded that even though there was no settlement, teachers were needed to offer help for “public purposes,” including tutoring contemplating, family organizing, once-over of electors, general races, etc., that didn’t discredit Article 23.

  • Durbar Goala v Union of India (AIR 1952 Cal 496)

This case holds that no forced labour or beggar is assuming an individual enthusiastically chooses to take care of business or to accomplish additional work to acquire other bring benefits back.

  • Raj Bahadur Case (AIR 1953 Cal 522)

In Raj Bahadur Case, it was held that Article 23 explicitly denies traffic in people or individuals for shameless purposes.

Article 24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Article 24 of the Indian Constitution disallows the employment of children beneath the age of 14 years in industrial facilities, mines, or some other dangerous business. This Article is for the government assistance of the children and guarantees a protected and solid existence of children. Article 39 of the Indian Constitution forces the State to guarantee the wellbeing and strength of the specialists, people, and children are not mishandled and forced by the monetary need to get occupied with perilous exercises that don’t measure up for their age or strength.

Children are the future of a country. Therefore, each country must ensure that what’s to come in brilliant by giving great food, instruction, and wellbeing to the nation’s offspring to become sufficiently able to accomplish something great in their life, which will eventually add to the advancement and improvement of the country. For that reason, Article 24 is perused with Art. 39(e) and Art. 39(f).


  • This Article restricts the employment of children under 14 years old in hazardous labor.
  • This Article is perused with Article 39(e) and (f).
  • It guarantees the security and sound existence of children.
  • It forces an obligation on the State to guarantee that children are not maltreated and compelled to labor in unsafe spots in light of monetary issues through Article 39.
  • It doesn’t restrict the labor of children in the innocuous piece.

Landmark Judgments

  • People’s Union for Democratic Rights v. Union of India (AIR 1983 SC 1473)

For this situation, specific individuals, including not many children under 14, were utilized in the building labour of the Asiad Project in Delhi. It was fought that the Employment of Children Act, 1938 was not pertinent on account of children utilized in building labour since building enterprises were not determined in the timetable of the Children Act. Bhagwati J. held that-

“The view given by the Government isn’t at all acceptable. Building labour is an unsafe business, and in this manner, the children under 14 years should not be utilized in the building labour regardless of whether the construction labour isn’t explicitly referenced under the timetable of the Employment of Children Act, 1938. Therefore, the State Government is encouraged to make quick fundamental strides to incorporate the building labour in the timetable of the Act and to guarantee that Article 24 isn’t disregarded on any piece of the country.”

  • M. C. Mehta v. State of Tamil Nadu (AIR 1997 SC 669)

For this situation, M. C. Mehta filed a PIL under Article 32 and informed the Court concerning how the children are occupied with Sivakasi Cracker Factories. Although the Constitution denies exploitation and labour of children under Article 24, it additionally guides the State to give free and necessary practice to them under Article 41; countless children are labouring in difficult spots. Notwithstanding the Constitutional arrangements and different authorizations passed by many State Governments disallowing youngster labour, the issue of child labour has stayed strange. It is turning into a threat to society step by step. It was held by Hansaria J. that-

“The children under 14 years can’t be utilized in risky exercises, and State must set out specific rules to forestall social, financial and compassionate freedoms of such children labouring unlawfully in broad daylight and private area. Additionally, it is violative of Article 24, and the State must guarantee free and mandatory practice to them. It was also coordinated to build up the Child Labor Rehabilitation Welfare Fund and pay Rs. 20,000 to every child.”


Since the beginning of human advancement, the more grounded have overwhelmed and taken advantage of the more vulnerable. In such a situation, it is essential to shield the more vulnerable from such abuse and give them equivalent freedoms in each field to enable themselves. In addition, child labour is wrongdoing that is winning in the general public as a condemnation. It is an impediment thwarting the turn of events and the country’s building. Sound children lead to the splendid eventual fate of a nation. Child labour is blemishing, vandalizing, and destroying the future of the children and, in the end, ends up being a control in the advancement of the country. Thus, legitimate execution of the laws is an outright need.